Islamic History: Expansion and Civil Discord in the Reigns of `Umar and `Uthman
Taught by Dr. Ashraf Muneeb
When the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) left this world, he left behind a generation of Companions who were, in his own words, "the best of generations" (Bukhari). He left this generation with a mission: to take the religion that he had taught them from the Arabian peninsula to as far as they could all over the world.
The greatest parts of this expansion happened during the 10-year reign of `Umar b. al-Khattab, considered by some historians to have been the most influential figure in the history of Islam after the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) himself. It was during his reign that two greatest powers of the age--the Byzantines and the Sassanians--miraculously collapsed against the untrained and inexperienced armies of the Muslim Arabians. It was during his reign that the most important questions of Sacred Law were solved and established publicly, to later find their way into the four schools of Sacred Law. It was during his reign that thousands of new mosques were established in the newly-conquered territories--Egypt, the Levant, Iraq, and Iran--turning them into permanent bastions of Islam forever after. And it was during his reign that the administrative, legal, and financial apparatus of the Muslim state were created.
This expansion continued during the beginning of the 12-year reign of `Uthman b. `Affan. Then, as the greatest Companions of the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) began to pass away, and new Muslims who had never met him began to wield greater influence, what is known in Islamic history as "the great upheaval" (al-fitna al-kubra) happened, culminating in the assassination of `Uthman by revolting armies that marched on Medina from Iraq and Egypt, plunging the Muslim umma into years of civil strife.
The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) foretold all of these events, and the Companions knew they were coming. Like everything that happens around us, they were part of the great wisdom of Allah Most High. Take this course to learn about this formative period of our history and the lessons that Allah Most High taught us through them.
This course is taught in Arabic, and runs for ten weeks each term